Disproportionality Advocacy

Racial Bias in the Legal System

Systemic disproportionality in case outcomes for Black, Brown, and Indigenous peoples is a reality of the legal system. The resources and tools compiled here are intended to provide attorneys with information that will strengthen their advocacy for their clients.

Antiracist Guidance and Resources
Cash Bail Disparity Experienced by Black and Brown Populations
Child Welfare Advocacy and Cultural Humility
Collecting Fines and Fees
Addressing Racial Epithets in Cases
Adultification Bias Resources

Bias, Race, Trials and Prosecutors

Alleging Bias

Bias and Mental Health

Implicit Bias

Machine Bias (Risk Assessment Tools)

Bias, Judges and Courts
Caseload Data Visual Reports

2024 Data Reports

2023 Data Reports

2022 Data Reports

Council on Public Defense Race Equity Subcommittee BIPOC Forum

COVID-19 Greater Health Risk and Hardship on Black and Brown Incarcerated

COVID-19 In and Out of Court Challenges

COVID-19 and Pandemic Impacts on Black and Brown Populations

    Data Toolbox
    Demographics of Power
    Epistemic Injustice
    Eyewitness Challenges
    How the Prison System Started, Works, and Harms
    Incarceration Rates
    Jail Services and Alternatives to Incarceration
    Jury Selection Challenges
    Overuse of Jails
    • Impact on Black and Brown Communities
      • Nationally, Black Americans are jailed at almost four times the rate of white Americans.
      • Nearly 75% of sentenced offenders and those detained in jail before trial are there for nonviolent traffic, property, drug, or public order offenses.
      • Three out of five people in jail are legally presumed innocent, awaiting trial or resolution through plea negotiations.
    • The Cycle of Jail/Prison Growth [PDF]
    Police Violence Mapping
    Risk, Race & Recidivism: Predictive Bias and Disparate Impact (Related to Release Motions)
    Sentencing / The Sentencing Project
    The Power of Illusion
    Trauma Informed Resources

    Disproportionality Based on Social Index Categories

    Bias Against Women

    Gender Bias In The Courts: Women Are Not Believed (forbes.com) (04/05/2023)

    Bias Against the LGBTQ+ Community
    Weight Bias
    Bias Based on Neurodivergence
    Disability Justice / Bias Based in Ableism
    Bias Based on Religion